Sources used for The Language of Animals

These examples of the print sources I used for the original book chapters (and some related titles) all date from 1995 or earlier, but may serve as a starting point for research. More recent sources can be found in the News section of ACP and in sidebars within ACP sections. Searching in Google , Google Scholar and Amazon should be a big help in finding more up-to-date books and references.

The Language of Animals was published in the US by Henry Holt (1996), in Australia by Allen and Unwin (1996), in German by dtv (1997) and in Spanish by Omega (1997).
Cover photo by Art Wolfe
Please e-mail if you have information about other editions.


An Introduction to Language, 4th edition, Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman, 1998, Holt, Rinehart, Winston

Psychology, Henry Gleitman, University of Pennsylvania, 1981, W.W. Norton & Company

Animal Minds, Donald R. Griffin, The University of Chicago Press, 1992


Cephalopod Behavior, Roger T. Hanlon, John B. Messenger, 1995, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 6 “Reproductive Behavior”

“Cognition in Cephalopods,” Jennifer A. Mather, Advances in the Study of Behavior, 24, 316-353, 1995

Social Insects: Honeybee Dances

Bees, Their Vision, Chemical Senses and Language, Karl von Frisch, 1950, Great Seal Books, Cornell University Press

Anatomy of a Controversy: The Question of a Language among Bees, Adrian M. Wenner, Patrick Wells, 1990, Columbia University Press

“The transfer of information in the dance language of honeybees: progress and problems,” Axel Michelsen, Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 173 135-141, 1993

“Learning by Instinct,” James L. Gould and Peter Marler, Scientific American, January, 1987

"Attendants and followers of honey bee waggle dances," Janko Božič, T. Valentinčič, Journal of Apicultural Research, 30 125-131, 1991

“Recruitment Success in Attenders and Followers of the Waggle Dance, Janko Bozˇicˇ, Proceedings of the American Bee Research Conference, December 1993

“How Honeybees Perceive the Information of the Dance Language,” Claudia Dreller, W.H. Kirchner, Naturwissenschaften, 80 319-321, 1993

Other Insects

The Physiology of Mosquitoes, A.N. Clements, Macmillan, 1963

“Singing caterpillars, ants and symbiosis,” DeVries, P. J. 1992 Scientific American 267: 76-82

“The Cricket’s Tragedy,” Discover, March, 1993

“Singing Under Pressure: Phonotactic Parasitoid Flies in Hawaiian Cricket Hosts,” Marlene Zuk, Field Notes, 10 477-484, 1994

“Comparison of acoustical signals in Maculinea butterfly caterpillars and their obligate host Myrmica ants,” P.J. Devries, R.B. Cocroft, J. Thomas, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 49 229-238, 1993

“Call Production by Myrmecophilous Riodinid and Lycaenid Butterfly Caterpillars (Lepidoptera): Morphological, Acoustical, Functional, and Evolutionary Patterns,” P.J. Devries, American Museum Novitates, 1991

“The use of larval morphology and drumming in Plecoptera systematics, and further studies of drumming behavior,” K.W. Stewart, D. D. Zeigler, Annals of Limnology, 20 1-2, 1984

“The Language of Stoneflies,” Kenneth W. Stewart, S.W. Szczytko, B.P. Stark, BioScience, February, 1983

“Male Search Behavior of the Stonefly, Pteronarcella badia (Hagen) (Plecoptera: Pteronarcyidae), in Relation to Drumming, John C. Abbot, Kenneth W. Stewart, Journal of Insect Behavior, 1993


“I Am Not Lunch. I Am Your Mate,” Discover, October 1994 p 17

“Eight-legged Tricksters,” Robert R. Jackson, BioScience, September 1992

“Communication in spiders,” George W. Uetz, Gail E. Stratton, Endeavour. New Series, Volume 7, Number 1, 1983

“A Very Mini-Series,” Discover, April 1991, p 10

“Signal efficacy and the evolution of male dimorphism in the jumping spider, Maevia inclemens,” David L. Clark, George W. Uetz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 90 11954-11957, December 1993

“Transmission of a Female Sex Pheremone Thwarted by Males in the Spider Linyphia litigiosa (Linyphiidae),” Paul J. Watson, Science, 233 219-221, July 11, 1986

“Dancing in the Dome,” Paul J. Watson, Natural History, March, 1995


“The Ecology, Courtship, and Mating of Gymnotiform Electric Fish,” Mary Hagedorn, in Electroreception, Theodore H. Bullock, Walter Heiligenberg, 1986, John Wiley & Sons

“Behavior of Mormyridae,” Carl D. Hopkins, in Electroreception, Theodore H. Bullock, Walter Heiligenberg, 1986, John Wiley & Sons

“The neuronal basis of communication and orientation in the weakly electric fish, Eigenmannia. I. Communication behavior, or: Seeking a conspecific’s response.” Walter Metzner, Svenja Viete, Naturwissenschaften 83 6-, 1996

“From brains to behaviour: hormonal cascades and alternative mating tactics in teleost fishes,” Andrew H. Bass, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 3 181-186, 1993

“Alternative Male Spawning Tactics and Acoustic Signals in the Plainfin Midshipman Fish Porichthys notatus Girard (Teleostei, Batrachoididae),” Richard K. Brantley, Andrew H. Bass, Ethology, 96 213-232, 1994

“Sounds from the Intertidal Zone: Vocalizing Fish,” Andrew H. Bass, BioScience, April, 1990


“Female Choice in Bufo americanus: Effects of Dominant Frequency and Call Order,” Richard D. Howard, Joseph G. Palmer, Copeia, No 1, 1995

“Vocal Interactions in Bufo woodhousii fowleri,” Mac F. Given, Journal of Herpetology, 27 447-452, 1993

“Male response to female vocalizations in the carpenter frog, Rana virgatipes,” Mac F. Given, Animal Behavior 46 1139-1149, 1993


“Repertoire matching between neighbouring song sparrows,” Michael D. Beecher, Philip K. Stoddard, S. Elizabeth Campbell, Cynthia L. Horning, Animal Behaviour, 51 917-923, 1996

“Correlation of song learning and territory establishment strategies in the song sparrow," Michael D. Beecher, S. Elizabeth Campbell, Philip K. Stoddard, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91 1450-1454, 1994

“Ontogeny of Chick Responses to Maternal FoodCalls in the Burmese Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus), Christopher A. Moffatt, Jerry A. Hogan, Journal of Comparative Psychology, 106 92-96, 1992

“Sexual Selection in Bowerbirds,” Gerald Borgia, Scientific American June 1986

“Why Do Bowerbirds Build Bowers?,” Gerald Borgia, American Scientist, 83 542-547, 1995

“Some Cognitive Capacities of an African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus),” Irene Maxine Pepperberg, Advances in the Study of Behavior Vol. 14. Many more Pepperberg publications


Dolphin Societies, Discoveries and Puzzles, Karen Pryor, Kenneth S. Norris, eds., University of California Press, 1991

”An optical telemetry device to identify which dolphin produces a sound,” Peter Tyack, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 78 1892-1895, 1985

“Whistle repertories of two bottlenosed dolphins, Tursiops truncatus: mimicry of signature whistles?,” Peter Tyack, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 18 251-257, 1986

“Human interactions with free-ranging and captive bottlenose dolphins,” Toni G. Frohoff, Jane M. Packard, Anthrozoös, 8 44-54, 1995

“Computer modeling of acoustic beam formation in Delphinus delphus, James L. Aroyan, Ted W. Cranford, Joel Kent, Kenneth S. Norris, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 92 2539-2545, 1992

“These Dolphins Aren’t Just Whistling in the Dark,” Peter L. Tyack, Laela S. Sayigh, Oceanus, 32 80-83, 1989

“Representational and Cenceptual Skills of Dolphins,” Louis M. Herman, Adam A. Pack, Palmer Morrel-Samuels, in Language and Communication: Comparative Perspectives, Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993

“Impossible! Dolphins seem to hear through their jaws and ‘talk’ through their foreheads,” Karen Schmidt, Science Notes, Spring 1991

Elephants and other animals that use infrasonic calls

“The Rhino’s Silent Call,” Yvonne Baskin, Discover, April 1992, p18

“Big Talkers,” William Barklow, Wildlife Conservation,

“African Elephants Respond to Distant Playbacks of Low-frequency Conspecific Calls,” William R. Langbauer, Jr., Katharine B. Payne, Russell A. Chariff, Lisa Rapaport, Ferrel Osborn, J. exp. Biol. 157, 35-46 (1991)

“The Sounds of Silence,” Russell A. Charif, Wildlife Conservation, March/April 1993

“The Social Contexts of Some Very Low Frequency Calls of African Elephants,” Joyce H. Poole, Katherine Payne, William R. Langbauer Jr., Cynthia J. Moss, Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 22: 385-392 1988

“Transmission of Low-frequency Sound in Three African Environments and its Relevance to Long Distance Elephant Communication,” W.R. Langbauer, R.A. Charif, F.L. Osborn, Draft

“Functional Analysis of Infrasound in the Okapi (Okapia johnstoni): Mother-Infant Communication,” Susan Lyndaker Lindsey, Cynthia L. Bennett, John J. Fried, American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums (AAZPA), Annual Conference, 1993

Cats and Dogs

“Play Signals as Punctuation: The Structure of Social Play in Canids,” Marc Bekoff, Behaviour 132 419-429 (1995)

“Female Lions Can Identify Potentially Infanticidal Males from their Roars,” Karen McComb, Anne Pusey, Craig Packer, Jon Grinnell, Proc R Soc Lond B (1993) 252, 59-64

“Cooperation in Male Lions: Kinship, Reciprocity or Mutualism?,” Jon Grinnell, Craig Packer, Anne E. Pusey, Anim Bevav, 1995, 49, 95-105

“Roaring and Numerical Assessment in Contests Between Groups of Female Lions, Panthera leo,” Karen McComb, Craig Packer, Anne Pusey, Anim Behav, 1994, 47, 379-387


“Monkey Sounds Contain Complex Messages,” Inside Yerkes, Fall/Winter 1992

“Making Sense of Monkey Talk,” Rebecca Perl, The Atlanta Journal, The Atlanta Constitution, Oct 17, 1992, Section F

“Save the Males,” William Raspberry, Washington Post, January 14, 1994, A24

“Can Rhesus Monkeys Disguise Their Learning Abilities?,” Inside Yerkes, Fall/Winter, 1992

“Processing of complex sounds in the macaque nonprimary auditory cortex,” JP Rauschecker, B Tian, and M Hauser, Science 7 April 1995: Vol. 268. no. 5207, pp. 111 - 114

“The Not-So-Madding Crowd,” Discover, February 1994, p14


In The Shadow of Man, Jane van Lawick-Goodall, Dell, 1971

Nim (A Chimpanzee Who Learned Sign Language), Herbert S. Terrace, Eyre Methuen/Alfred A. Knopf, 1979

Chimpanzee Politics (Power & Sex Among Apes), Frans de Waal, Harper & Row, 1982

“Making Peace is as Natural as Making War,” Inside Yerkes, Spring 1991

“Human ‘Moms’ Teach Chimps It's All in the Family,” Maxine Rock, Smithsonian, v25 n12 p70-75 Mar 1995

“You Pant Hoot Funny,” Discover, December 1992, p28

“Developmental Milestones for Chimpanzees Raised in a Responsive Care Nursery,” YP Veira and KA Bard, Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Seattle, 1994

“Ethological Studies of Chimpanzee Vocal Behavior,” John C. Mitani, in Chimpanzee Cultures, Harvard University Press, 1994

“The Question of Chimpanzee Culture,” Michael Tomasello, in Chimpanzee Cultures, Harvard University Press, 1994

“Language in Comparative Perspective,” DM Rumbaugh and S Savage-Rumbaugh, in Animal Learning and Cognition, Academic Press, 1994

Apes, Language and the Human Mind: Philosophical Primatology, Savage-Rumbaugh, Shanker, Taylor, 1998

“Ape at the Brink,” Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and Roger Lewin, Discover, September 1994, p91

Kanzi : the ape at the brink of the human mind, Savage-Rumbaugh,1994

The Language Instinct, Steven Pinker, Harper Perennial, 1995

“Communication, Symbolic Communication, and Language: Comment on Savage-Rumbaugh, McDonald, Sevcik, Hopkins and Rupert (1986),” Mark S. Seidenberg and Laura A. Petito, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1987, Vol. 116, No. 3, 279-287

“Language Comprehension and Use by Great Apes,” Rose A. Sevcik and E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, Language & Communication, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 37-58, 1994

“Biobehavioral Roots of Language,” Rumbaugh, Savage-Rumbaugh and Sevcik, in Chimpanzee Cultures, Harvard University Press, 1994

“My Dinner with Washoe,” Jerome Richard, Pacific Discovery, Winter 1995, p35